Bhutan National Human Development Report 2005

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The development ideals of Gross National Happiness (GNH) and human development are broad, comprehensive concepts that encompass a wide spectrum of human-fulfillment choices and needs. They both comprise issues of profound concern and are, explicitly or implicitly, the long-term goals of all societies, no matter what their levels of development. The seminal ideas of GNH and human development similarly derive from a deep dissatisfaction with conventional measures of development, which are based on income and consumption indicators. Instead, both concepts question the fundamental purpose of development and seek to expand the development discourse from a discussion of means to one of ultimate ends. The question inherent in their philosophies is: What is the greatest good of development and the end purpose to which it is directed?

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