Definition of Youth

Mongolia’s National Programme on Adolescents and Youth Development (2006) defines youth as individuals between the ages of 15-34 years.


Marriageable Age

  • Opposite Sex
  • Same Sex
  • Without parental consent
  • with parental consent
  • Male
  • 18
  • --
  • --
  • Female
  • 18
  • --
  • --

  • No data for marriageable age with parental consent. No specific legislation for same-sex marriage. Source: UNSD, ILGA

Candidacy Age

Criminal Responsibility

Minimum Age
Between the ages of 14-16 children are criminally liable only in cases of serious offences. Source:  Criminal Code of Mongolia

Majority Age



Voting Age


Situation of Young People

Literacy Rates

Both sexes (15-24) %
  • 98.05% Male (15-24) %
  • 98.98% Female (15-24) %

Net Enrolment Rate

Secondary School
Both sexes %
  • 80.98%Male %
  • 85.33% Female %

Situation of Young People

Prevalence of HIV

Male (15-24) %
Female (15-24) %

Tobacco Use

Consumed any smokeless or smoking tobacco product at least once 30 days prior to the survey.
Both sexes (13-15) %
  • 25.70% Male (13-15) %
  • 16.00% Female (13-15) %
  • Year: 2010
  • Source: WHO

Policy & Legislation

Is there a national youth policy?
Mongolia has a national youth participation policy and a national youth development programme.

The National Programme on Adolescents and Youth Development (2006) aims to create a “favorable environment for the youth to increase their responsibility for both themselves and for the society, develop, protect their rights and improve their participation in social, economic and political lives.” The programme runs between 2007-2015 and focuses on four key areas: (1) Enhance the participation of young people; (2) Adolescents and youth substance abuse and disease prevention; (3) Create a safe and secure environment, and; (4) Globalization and youth participation. It is closely aligned to the implementation policies of the Millennium Development Goals. According to UNESCO, in 2013, a consultation event was held with young people on the “elaboration of a Mongolian Youth Policy” after 2015.

Public Institutions

Is there a governmental authority
(ministry, department or office) that is primarily responsible for youth?
The Ministry of Population Development and Social Welfare has responsibility for youth affairs. Under the Population & Development Policy Coordination Department sits an Adolescent Development and Youth Development policy specialists and an officer for youth inter-sectoral collaboration, awareness and advocacy. According to UNICEF, the National Authority for Children has responsibility for  child rights and the National Council for Children is the implementation agency of the National Programme for the Development and Protection of Children 2002-2010.

Youth and Representation

Does the country have a national youth organisation / association (council, platform, body)?
According to the Innovations for Civic Participation, the Mongolian Youth Federation (MYF) is the “successor of the official mass youth organization in [the] socialist period and maintains its leading role on the national policy development for youth.” Nationally it has 120,000 members in 600 offices. The official MYF Facebook Page states that it focuses on youth challenges in “education, health, employment and other issues.” UNDP is currently running a youth participation & civil education programme (2012-2014) aiming to increase “youth voice in policy.”

Budget & Spending

What is the budget allocated to the governmental authority (ministry, department or office) that is primarily responsible for youth and/or youth programming?
MNT 1.8 billion
USD 1.1 million
The Human Development and Social Protection of General Budget 2014 Budget lists the budget of the Population & Development Policy Coordination Department at Ministry of Population Development and Social Welfare as MNT 1.8 billion (USD 1.1 million). It is unclear what proportion of this is specifically allocated to youth. The National Authority for Children is listed as receiving MNT 1.6 billion (USD 914,739). According to the World Bank, Mongolia spent 11.86% of its government expenditure and 5.47% of its GDP on education provision in 2011.
Total Expenditure on Education as a Percentage of Government Spending and GDP

  • % of GDP
  • % of gov. expenditure

Source: World Bank
Gaps indicate missing data from the original data source. (Accessed August 2013).

Additional Background

The Achieving the Millennium Development Goals - Fifth National Progress Report (2013) provides a current situational analysis of life in Mongolia:

Population and migration Mongolia is situated in Central Asia, between the Russian Federation and China. Mongolia is the 19th largest country in the world, covering 1.5 million square kilometers, divided into 21 aimags (provinces) and the capital city. At the end of 2012 Mongolia had a population of 2.9 million, of which around 67 percent resided in urban areas. A total of 1.2 million people lived in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city. [...]

Internal migration towards cities and urban settlements has increased since 2000, mainly caused by a harsh winter that is resulted in the loss of animals which is the main income source of a number of herding families. There have been notable changes in the share of urban population as a result of severe winter “dzud”. The herders who lost their livestock migrated extensively to urban areas in a search of livelihood.

Policy alignment The adoption and implementation of the MDGs in Mongolia has served as a backbone for the formulation of different policies and programmes such as economic policy, development strategy and human development policy, as well as for the establishment of implementation mechanisms and to improve monitoring and evaluation of different policies and programmes. The main objectives of the Millennium Development Goals–based Comprehensive National Development Strategy of Mongolia have been incorporated into the different policy documents, programs and actions of the Government of Mongolia.

Youth unemployment Currently, the youth aged 15-24 constitute about 30 percent of the working age population of Mongolia, and at the same time their age economically active population comprise 16 percent of the total economically active population. Youth unemployment rate calculated based on registered unemployed was quite high in 1998-2001, which stabilized in 2002-08. However, the Labour Force Survey conducted in 2009-12 revealed the number of hidden unemployed. Thus, in 2009 the unemployment rate of youth aged 15-24 increased to 22.0 percent, and form the next year it started to decline steadily by around 14 percent per annum. By 2012 it reached 14 percent. This declining trend in the youth unemployment rate is attributable to the implementation of various programs such as “Pre-employability Program for Youth”, and “Sub-program to support youth and students’ employment”.

According to Innovations in Civil Participation - Mongolia Country Page:

Youth issues are regulated and coordinated through a number of policies and programs in Mongolia. The State Population Development Policy, adopted by the Parliament in 2004 serves as the main policy regarding youth development issues. The policy has the following provisions on youth: A state policy will be directed at growing and developing adolescents and the youth population into physically and intellectually well developed citizens who can contribute to building, monitoring and strengthening the social development process and actively participate in decision making. Opportunities which offer young families access to housing, income generating credit schemes and development assistances will be expanded. Adolescents and youth will be provided with conditions for formal and informal education, training, employment, health services and economic independence, and their productivity and creativity will be developed. Attention will be paid to giving the youth a sense of respect and value of nature, mother tongue, traditional culture and civilization. An enabling environment will be created for adolescents and youth to have productive leisure time and development of self. Rights and needs-based, age-specific reproductive health care and services for young people will be promoted and expanded. Innovative and affordable child care, development and welfare services will be established in response to the specific needs of young families.