Definition of Youth

The national youth policy (2004). defines youth as between 14 - 29 years of age. The national youth policy (2013) does not specific an age.


Marriageable Age

  • Opposite Sex
  • Same Sex
  • Without parental consent
  • with parental consent
  • Male
  • 18
  • 16
  • --
  • Female
  • 17
  • 16
  • --

  • No specific legislation for same-sex marriage. Source: UNSD, ILGA

Candidacy Age

Criminal Responsibility

Minimum Age
Source:  Criminal Code of Kazakhstan

Voting Age


Situation of Young People

Literacy Rates

Both sexes (15-24) %
  • 99.81% Male (15-24) %
  • 99.87% Female (15-24) %

Net Enrolment Rate

Secondary School
Both sexes %
  • 86.90%Male %
  • 85.70% Female %

Situation of Young People

Prevalence of HIV

Male (15-24) %
Female (15-24) %

Tobacco Use

Consumed any smokeless or smoking tobacco product at least once 30 days prior to the survey.
Both sexes (13-15) %
  • 12.20% Male (13-15) %
  • 7.80% Female (13-15) %
  • Year: 2010
  • Source: WHO

Policy & Legislation

Is there a national youth policy?
There is a 2004 youth policy law, a 2013 national youth policy and a 2012 implementation report.

In 2013, the new national youth policy (2013) was approved replacing the previous national youth policy (2004). An action plan is currently being developed, though an Implementation Plan (2012) exists. The youth policy focuses on 6 problem areas:

  1. The pressures of globalization on traditional values ​​system
  2. Non-dominant status of labor values
  3. Paternalism and social infantilism
  4. The cult of consumption
  5. Risk youth radicalization environment
  6. Marginalization of youth
Action points are specified in regards to patriotism, unity of the nation, ICT, tolerance, education, industry, science and innovation, family, health & fitness, economy, environmental ethics and law abiding. In 2012, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan launched the Strategy Kazakhstan - 2050 plan in which youth are mentioned.

Public Institutions

Is there a governmental authority
(ministry, department or office) that is primarily responsible for youth?
Youth programmes are administered by the Ministry of Education & Science. A Committee on Youth Policy supports the development of youth policy and according to the Implementation Plan (2012), “consists of representatives of government agencies, national youth organizations, scientific, creative and talented young people, business and the media.” A separate agency for youth policy has been suggested. The advisory Coordination Council for Development of Youth Organizations aims to, “identify priorities and effective activities form a system policy for youth organizations.”

Youth and Representation

Does the country have a national youth organisation / association (council, platform, body)?
According to the Eurasian National University, the Republican Youth Forum, which was organised by the Ministry of Education & Science and the Kazakhstan Youth Congress took place in 2012 with the aim to, “bring together young people for consolidation and intercultural dialogue among young people.” The Congress of Youth of Kazakhstan, mentioned on TakingITGlobal and a Youth Education Portal, is a “coordinating body for 105 out of 157 youth organizations in Kazakhstan. However no independent national youth council can be identified.

Budget & Spending

What is the budget allocated to the governmental authority (ministry, department or office) that is primarily responsible for youth and/or youth programming?
KZT 2 billion
USD 13.05 million
According to the Implementation Plan (2012), “total funding of state youth policy was more than 2 billion.” According to the World Bank, Kazakhstan spent 12.09% of its government expenditure on education provision in 2000, and 3.06% of its GDP in 2009.
Total Expenditure on Education as a Percentage of Government Spending and GDP

  • % of GDP
  • % of gov. expenditure

Source: World Bank
Gaps indicate missing data from the original data source. (Accessed August 2013).

Additional Background

The national youth policy (2013) articulates a commitment to youth development:

In the context of the modernization of society and the increasing demands for human capital state youth policy should be a tool for development and transformation of the country.

This requires all participants in the process of social formation of youth development and consistent implementation of the approaches focused on the direct involvement of young people in solving their own problems and national problems.

Objectives of State Youth Policy of this magnitude can only be solved through the application of the design approach aimed at the successful socialization of young people and priorities of statehood. All of this, ultimately, generate (sic) sustainable conditions for self-organization of youth and the entire population, the development of initiatives to meet the scale of the challenges facing Kazakhstan - the growth of the welfare of citizens and improve public relations.

However, similar to other former-Soviet states, governmental focus is often on ‘gifted and talented’ young people. Kazakhstan Live note,

Bolashak is a long running programme managed by the Centre for International Programs, on behalf of the Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan. The programme's objective is to provide an opportunity for the most talented students from Kazakhstan to undertake higher education courses at the best universities overseas, enabling them to acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to build a democratic and prosperous society.