Definition of Youth

According to a 2013 youth policy review, the Youth Law of Indonesia (Law N° 40/2009) defines youth as 16-30 year-olds, but this age bracket is not consistently used or applied.


Marriageable Age

  • Opposite Sex
  • Same Sex
  • Without parental consent
  • with parental consent
  • Male
  • 19
  • --
  • --
  • Female
  • 16
  • --
  • --

  • No data for marriage with parental consent. No specific legislation for same-sex marriage. Homosexual acts legal except in South Sumatra and Aceh Province. Source: UNSD, ILGA

Candidacy Age

Criminal Responsibility

Minimum Age
The government has committed to revise the 1997 Juvenile Court Act and raise the minimum age to 12. Source:  UN Child Rights Periodic Report

Majority Age


Age of majority differs across legal instruments, the main ones being the criminal code (15) and the juvenile court law (18). Source: UNICEF(2007)

Voting Age


Voting is permitted at the age of 17 if married.
Source:  Inter-Parliamentary Union

Situation of Young People

Literacy Rates

Both sexes (15-24) %
  • 98.87% Male (15-24) %
  • 99.09% Female (15-24) %

Net Enrolment Rate

Secondary School
Both sexes %
  • 74.81%Male %
  • 77.46% Female %

Situation of Young People

Prevalence of HIV

Male (15-24) %
Female (15-24) %

Tobacco Use

Consumed any smokeless or smoking tobacco product at least once 30 days prior to the survey.
Both sexes (13-15) %
  • 41.00% Male (13-15) %
  • 6.20% Female (13-15) %
  • Year: 2010
  • Source: WHO

Policy & Legislation

Is there a national youth policy?
There are attempts to develop a national youth policy. A review and mapping, both from 2013, exist.

According to a 2013 youth policy review, an inte­grated national youth policy does not exist. The review identified eight policies and laws at national level related to youth, each with its own definition of youth, covering issues from child protection and the national education system to entrepreneurship and health.

The review observes a “fragmentation of youth-related policies” and criticises substantial overlap, combined with a lack of coordination.

The review also criticises that existing policies are not based on evidence such as youth-specific research or a current and representative needs analysis.

Public Institutions

Is there a governmental authority
(ministry, department or office) that is primarily responsible for youth?
Indonesia has a Ministry of Youth and Sports (abbreviated as Kemenegpora).  The vision of the Ministry centres on making Indonesia “an independent, progressive, just and prosperous nation,”  which it underpings with four strands of action: empowering youth; fostering competitiveness; popularising sports; and supporting athletes.

Youth and Representation

Does the country have a national youth organisation / association (council, platform, body)?
The National Committee of Indonesian Youth (KNPI) is the national youth council of Indonesia. It is a full member of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY).   The national scouting organisation Gerakan Pramuka brings together one of the biggest youth movements of the country. According to the 2012 census of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), its Indonesian member association has 21.6 million members, making it the biggest national scouting organisation.

Budget & Spending

What is the budget allocated to the governmental authority (ministry, department or office) that is primarily responsible for youth and/or youth programming?
IDR 1.8 trillion
USD 153.6 million
According to the Jakarta Post (March 2012), the budget for the Ministry of Youth and Sports in 2012 was IDR 1.8 trillion (USD 153.6 million). According to the World Bank, Indonesia spent 15.18% of its government expenditure and 2.77% of its GDP on education provision in 2011.
Total Expenditure on Education as a Percentage of Government Spending and GDP

  • % of GDP
  • % of gov. expenditure

Source: World Bank
Gaps indicate missing data from the original data source. Data for Indonesia include Timor-Leste through 1999 unless otherwise noted. (Accessed August 2013).

Additional Background

From Civic Engagement and social inclusion of youth in Indonesia (2013):  
Indonesia doesn’t have an integrated National Youth Policy. The only law that specifically aims to empower youth is the Law No. 40/2009, which is taken by the government as the reference when discussing youth. [...] The language in the law is vague and it overlaps with other legal instruments such as the Children Law or the Law on Children’s Welfare. The law is built upon assumptions. An evidence-based identification of youth needs and concerns is required. The youth law is not integrated with other policies that have connections to youth under different ministries. The youth policy entails synchronization with existing regulations with support from cross- sectoral cooperation. The youth policy should be focused on pursuing a real involve­ment of youth in government, private sector and civil society initiatives and programmes.
  From Youth Policies in Indonesia. Activating the role of youth (2013):  
An integrated youth policy in Indonesia did not exist. There were eight policies related to youth and each had its own definition of “youth”. Only Law No. 40 of 2009 on Youth had specifically defined the criteria of being a youth. All the policies intersected and even overlapped in trying to target youth problems. [...] The fragmenta­tion of youth-related policies resulted in unintegrated distribu­tion of funding for programs and they often overlapped between one ministry and another. [...] The existing youth policies, especially National Youth Law, did not repre­sent the needs and problems of today’s youth. [...] The state had not viewed youth as a diverse group with specific needs and problems.
  From the Committee of the Rights of the Child Periodic Report on Indonesia (2012):  
The Government will undertake the following efforts in developing its juvenile justice system: (a) expedite the revision of Law No. 3 of 1997 regarding Juvenile Justice System to focus on raising the mini­mum age of a person who can be held legally accoun­table before law, from the current 8 years old to 12 years old, and adopt a restorative justice system for children in conflict with the law [...]