Overview of national youth policies

A list of all countries & the
current status of their national
youth policy, as far as known.
Thank you much for sending any
updates, amendments, additions, questions and corrections along.
A quick email to
national@youthpolicy.org
will do the trick :)
In January 2013, we published the most recent overview of the state of youth policy. Of 198 countries, 99 (50%) have a current youth policy.
A further 56 (28%) are revising their existing national youth policy or are, in a few cases, developing their very first national youth policy.
43 states (22%) have no national youth policy (yet). Of those, 17 states are in Africa, 12 in Asia, 9 in Europe and 5 in the Americas.


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A

Afghanistan

A draft youth policy, developed in 2013, awaits approval. A youth strategy is being developed.

Albania

Albania has a national youth stra­tegy. An international youth policy review was published in 2010.

Algeria

There is a very broad framework for youth policy. An international study was published in 2009.

Andorra

Andorra has a national youth plan. A background document details legislation and framework.

Angola

Angola has a governmental national youth plan. An international profile provides additional context.

Antigua & Barbuda

The national youth policy & agenda of Antigua & Barbuda was adopted in 2007.

Argentina

Argentina has no national youth policy, but the National Youth Bureau determines policy.

Armenia

A 1998 concept is underpinned by a 2013-2017 youth policy strategy. Reviews from 2009 and 2011 exist.

Australia

The national youth strategy was launched in 2010, underpinned by two reports on youth and policy.

Austria

Austria launched a youth strategy in 2013. A youth policy summary and two briefings (1, 2) add context.

Azerbaijan

There is a state law on youth policy and a programme to implement it. An international briefing exists, too.


B

Bahamas

The Bahamas envisage to finalise the development of their first national youth policy in 2013.

Bahrain

While a 2011-2015 youth strategy was prelaunched, it is unclear whether a youth policy exists.

Bangladesh

The national youth policy of Bangladesh dates back to 2003, and is currently under revision.

Barbados

The national youth policy of Barba­dos was adopted in 2011. A draft was presented earlier that year.

Belarus

The state law on youth policy of Belarus is from 2009. A briefing paper from 2011 is available.

Belgium

Youth Policy in Belgium is regionally organised, a briefing explains how. A review was conducted in 2012.

Belize

The government of Belize launched a new national youth development policy in early 2013.

Benin

The national youth policy was adopted in 2001. An assessment report was published in 2011.

Bhutan

The national youth policy of Bhutan was drafted in 2010 and launched in 2011. An action plan will follow.

Bolivia

The national youth plan of Bolivia covers 2008-2012. In 2012, a new youth rights bill came into force.

Bosnia & Herzegovina

A 2010 youth law exists, a national youth policy is under development. A 2011 briefing paper exists.

Botswana

A revised national youth policy was adopted in 2010, complemented by a National Action Plan 2010-2016.

Brazil

In 2010, a new youth policy was adopted, and the constitution was amended to include youth.

British Virgin Islands

The British Virgin Islands estab­lished a committee in 2012 to develop a youth policy framework.

Brunei

The national youth policy of Brunei dates back to 2002. A reform has been urgently called for.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria has a national youth strategy 2010-2020. A youth law was adopted in 2012. Details.

Burkina Faso

The national youth policy of Burkina Faso was adopted in 2008. A french summary is available online.

Burundi

Burundi has a rudimentary national youth policy from 2008. A revision was initiated in 2011.


C

Cambodia

Cambodia has a policy for youth development. A UN situation analysis from 2009 exists.

Cameroon

Cameroon has a 2006 national youth policy, which prioritises national development.

Canada

There is an employment program, but no national youth policy. A report compares regional ones.

Cape Verde

The national youth policy of Cape Verde is from 2009. A strategic youth plan is under development.

Central African Republic

A national youth policy “has been prepared”, but is currently not available online.

Chad

Chad has no national youth policy. A national youth congress in 2011 demanded one, to no avail so far.

Chile

Chile has a national youth action plan from 2004. A youth health program was added in 2012.

China

China does not have a national youth policy. A 2011 article describes the current situation.

Colombia

Colombia has a national youth policy covering 2005-2015 and a youth law from 2013.

Comoros

Comoros has no national youth policy. An economic outlook has some info on policy impact.

Congo-Brazzaville

The Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) has no national youth policy.

Congo-Kinshasa

The Democratic Republic of Congo adopted a national youth policy in 2009. A reform is underway.

Costa Rica

Costa Rica adopted a new national youth policy in 2010, building on a 2006 action plan.

Côte D’Ivoire

Côte D’Ivoire has no national youth policy yet, but one should be adopted very soon.

Croatia

Croatia has a National Youth Action Program from 2003, underpinned by a Youth Program for 2009-2013.

Cuba

Cuba has no dedicated national youth policy. Recently, the youth policy approach was summarised.

Cyprus

There is no national youth policy yet. Briefings from 2012 and 2010. A policy review was done in 2007.

Czech Republic

The national youth policy was adopted in 2007. Briefings from 2012 and 2010 are available.


D

Denmark

Denmark has no national youth policy. A 2008 article and a 2012 briefing explain the approach.

Djibouti

The national youth policy of Djibouti was adopted in 2007. A revision has begun in 2011.

Dominica

The national youth policy of Dominica was adopted in 2004. It is currently under review.

Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic has a youth law from 2000, monitored by regular youth policy reports.


E

Ecuador

The 2001 youth law of Ecuador is under revision. The 2012-2013 youth policy focuses on equality.

Egypt

Egypt has no national youth policy yet. A 2010 youth policy briefing is available.

El Salvador

El Salvador has a national youth policy, an action plan and a youth law from 2013.

Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea has no overall youth policy, and no specific policies on youth issues either.

Eritrea

Eritrea concentrates on employment policies. The lack of an overall youth policy has been criticised.

Estonia

The youth policy of Estonia is based on the 2010 youth work act and the 2006 youth work strategy.

Ethiopia

The national youth policy of Ethopia was adopted in 2004. An online summary is available.


F

Fiji

The national youth policy of Fiji was adopted in 2011. A 2012 youth participation mapping is available.

Finland

The youth policy of Finland is based on a youth act and decree and a 2012-2015 youth programme.

France

France renews its youth policy biennially. Here are the 2011 and 2013 editions and a 2012 briefing.


G

Gabon

The national youth policy of Gabon was introduced in 2011 at the first national youth congress.

Gambia

Gambia renews its national youth policy every ten years. The most recent one was adopted in 2009.

Georgia

Georgia adopted its national youth policy in 2012. An English draft and a 2011 briefing are available.

Germany

Germany is developing a national youth policy based on a concept paper. A briefing paper is available.

Ghana

Ghana adopted its latest national youth policy in 2010, focused on youth empowerment.

Greece

Greece has no dedicated national youth policy. A 2012 report and a 2012 briefing are available.

Grenada

Grenada adopted a national youth policy in 2003, but it has been defunct since the 2008 elections.

Guatemala

The current national youth policy covers 2012-2020, the previous one covered 2010-2015.

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau has no compre­hensive dedicated national youth policy yet.

Guinea-Conakry

Guinea-Conakry is said to have a new national youth policy, but it is not online.

Guyana

The national youth policy of Guyana is under development, but the process apparently is very slow.


H

Haiti

Haiti has no current national youth policy. A draft was developed in 2011.

Honduras

Honduras has a national youth policy, adopted in 2007, that covers the period 2007-2021.

Hungary

Hungary has a national youth strategy. A 2008 review, a 2011 briefing and a 2012 briefing exist.


I

Iceland

Iceland has no national youth policy. A 2007 Youth Act covers children and youth participation.

India

A new national youth policy was adopted in 2014. See the 2010 draft, 2012 draft and 2003 version.

Indonesia

There are attempts to develop a national youth policy. A review and mapping, both from 2013, exist.

Iran

A 2010 article explains youth policy discourses in Iran, including the recent regime.

Iraq

Iraq is developing a national youth strategy, and conducted a youth survey to inform the effort.

Ireland

Ireland is developing a new national youth framework, by a youth consultation.

Israel

Israel has no national youth policy, but plans to create one. A 2009 briefing is available.

Italy

Italy has a youth plan and youth rights initiative. A 2011 briefing and 2012 briefing have details.


J

Jamaica

The national youth policy of Jamaica was adopted in 2003 and is undergoing revision.

Japan

Japan has a 2008 youth policy framework and development policy, and a 2010 youth policy vision.

Jordan

Jordan has a 2005 national youth strategy. It is about to be renewed. A short study is from 2009 available.


K

Kazakhstan

There is a 2004 youth policy law, a 2013 national youth policy and a 2012 implementation report.

Kenya

The national youth policy of Kenya was adopted in 2006, followed by a strategic plan. Both will be renewed.

Kiribati

Kiribati has a new national youth policy for 2011-2015, and a draft action plan to implement it.

Kosovo

Kosova has a youth law and youth strategy with action plan. A 2011 review exists.

Kuwait

Kuwait is developing a national youth policy. A survey and a youth project were launched.

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan has a youth policy law. A 2010 study and 2012 review provide context and details.


L

Laos

Laos has no national youth policy. A comprehensive youth analysis is currently being conducted.

Latvia

Latvia has a youth law, youth policy guidelines, and a programme. An international review was done.

Lebanon

Lebanon endorsed its national youth policy in 2012. A 2009 youth policy study is available.

Lesotho

There is a national youth policy of Lesotho from 2005, but it is currently being updated.

Liberia

Liberia revised its national youth policy and action plan. A fragility assessment was conducted.

Libya

There is no functioning youth policy or strategy in Libya. Current efforts concentrate on youth employment.

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein has a 2008 youth law, a 2011 youth policy vision with an action plan, and a 2013 briefing.

Lithuania

Lithuania has a youth policy law and development programme. Details in a review and a briefing.

Luxembourg

Luxembourg has a youth law, a youth report and a youth pact. A 2012 briefing provides context.


M

Macedonia

Macedonia has a youth strategy and an action plan. A 2010 briefing and 2011 review have details.

Madagascar

The national youth policy of Mada­gascar is from 2004. A review has begun in December 2012.

Malawi

There has been pressure to review the national youth policy of Malawi, which is now foreseen in 2013.

Malaysia

The 1997 national youth policy is under review. The 10th Malaysia Plan has a youth chapter.

Maldives

The national youth policy of Maldives is from 2003. A 2005 youth study provides context.

Mali

Mali has had a national youth employment programme since 2003, which has been extended.

Malta

Malta has a national youth policy. There are a 2005 review, a 2012 briefing and a 2012 youth study.

Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands have a national youth policy covering 2009-2014. A recent book chapter has details.

Mauritania

Mauritania has a national youth strategy and policy from 2004, which will be revised soon.

Mauritius

The national youth policy of Mauritius covers 2010-2014. A 2011 briefing is available.

Mexico

Mexico had a youth programme for 2008-2012. A consultation is underway to renew it for 2014-2018.

Micronesia

Micronesia has a national youth policy from 2004. A recent book chapter adds context.

Moldova

Moldova has a youth law, a youth strategy and an action plan. A 2010 review and 2011 review exist.

Monaco

Monaco has no national youth policy. The approach is service-oriented with thematic priorities.

Mongolia

Mongolia has a national youth participation policy and a national youth development programme.

Montenegro

Montenegro has a youth action plan, and will soon have a youth law. A 2012 briefing has details.

Morocco

Morocco has a national youth policy, which is being overhauled. A 2009 study and 2012 report exist.

Mozambique

Mozambique has a national youth policy from 1996. It is undergoing revision, a first draft exists.

Myanmar (Burma)

Myanmar has no national youth policy yet, but there are two ongoing efforts to develop one.


N

Namibia

The national youth policy of Namibia is from 2006, and there is a push to review it soon.

Nauru

Nauru has a national youth policy covering 2008-2015, replacing the previous one from 1998.

Nepal

The national youth policy of Nepal is from 2010. A 2011 paper and a 2011 survey add context.

Netherlands

Youth policy in the Netherlands is undergoing a shift. A 2011 review and 2012 briefing explain.

New Zealand

New Zealand has a national youth development strategy. An extensive review was undertaken in 2009.

Nicaragua

Nicaragua adopted its current national youth policy in 2004. It is valid for the period 2005-2015.

Niger

Niger has a youth policy which was adopted before the constitutional crisis. A new one is developed.

Nigeria

Nigeria has a national youth policy from 2009, and an accompanying action plan for 2009-2013.

Niue

Niue has a national youth policy for the period 2009-2013, a revision of the youth policy 2003–2008.

North Korea

Despite cooperation with Russia and China, there is no information on youth policy in North Korea.

Norway

Norway has a national youth policy from 2002. A 2004 review and 2012 briefing have details.


O

Oman

Oman has no national youth policy. Youth issues are tackled through sectoral development plans.


P

Pakistan

Pakistan has a youth policy from 2008, but responsibility has shifted to the regions since its adoption.

Palau

Palau adopted its national youth policy in 2005, and added an implementation framework in 2009.

Palestine

The youth policy and strategy of Palestine will be revised. A youth study and a policy study exist.

Panama

Panama has a national youth policy from 2004, but it will be streamlined with regional youth policies.

Papua New Guinea

The national youth policy of Papua New Guinea covers 2007-2017. A 2011 book chapter provides details.

Paraguay

The national youth plan of Paraguay was adopted in 2011 and covers the period 2011–2013.

Peru

The national youth plan of Peru covered the period 2006-2011. It has not yet been renewed.

Philippines

The Philippines have a national youth development framework for the period 2005-2010.

Poland

Poland’s youth strategy has expired. A 2011 youth report and 2012 briefing exist.

Portugal

Portugal created a Commission for Youth Policies to develop a national youth policy. A 2012 briefing exists.


Q

Qatar

Qatar has a youth develop­ment report to mainstream youth policy with the development strategy.


R

Romania

Romania has a 2006 youth law and a draft 2014-2020 youth strategy. Studies from 2001, 2012 & 2013.

Russia

Russia has a 2013 youth policy strategy, underpinned by the report Youth of Russia 2000-2025.

Rwanda

The national youth policy of Rwanda was adopted in 2005. There are attempts to review and revise it.


S

Saint Kitts and Nevis

A draft national youth policy has been developed in 2010. The final version is available online.

Saint Lucia

Saint Lucia drafted a youth policy in 2000. For 2012-2017, there is a youth & sports plan.

Saint Vincent & Grenadines

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has an outdated national youth policy from 1996.

Samoa

Samoa replaced its 2001 national youth policy in 2011. A 2011 book chapter and 2006 analysis exist.

San Marino

San Marino has a youth policy law from 2007, which established a commission and a youth forum.

Sao Tome & Principe

São Tomé and Príncipe has no national youth policy. A 2012 brief­ing focuses on unemployment.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is developing a youth policy. The development plan 2010-2014 has a youth chapter.

Senegal

Senegal has a youth development fund but no national youth policy. A 2012 briefing exists.

Serbia

Serbia has a youth law, a youth strategy, an action plan and gui­de­lines. Two reviews: 2011, 2012.

Seychelles

The Seychelles has no current national youth policy, though an old one from 1995 exists.

Sierra Leone

The 2003 youth policy of Sierra Leone will be revised in 2013 by the National Youth Commission.

Singapore

Singapore has no dedicated youth policy, but a government-run council for coordination.

Slovakia

Slovakia has a 2008 youth policy and a 2012 action plan. A 2007 review and 2012 briefing exist.

Slovenia

Slovenia has a 2010 youth sector act. A 2010 youth study and two recent briefings (2011, 2012) exist.

Solomon Islands

The national youth policy covers 2011-2015. A 2003 study, 2005 analysis and 2011 chapter exist.

Somalia

Somalia has no current national youth policy. A 2012 youth development report exists.

South Africa

The national youth policy covers 2009-2014. A youth development policy (draft 1, 2) is discussed.

South Korea

South Korea has a youth law and a national youth policy. An English summary is available.

South Sudan

The youth policy is under revision. A 2012 youth report (longer) and a 2012 employment briefing exist.

Spain

Spain is discussing a draft white paper on youth policy. A 2012 briefing adds detail and context.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka launched a new youth policy in 2014 after a long and partly disputed process.

Sudan

Sudan has no current national youth policy. A 2012 youth employment briefing is available.

Suriname

Suriname has recently installed a committee to develop a national youth policy and action plan.

Swaziland

The national youth policy is from 2009. A 2012 youth unemployment briefing exists.

Sweden

Sweden has a 2004 youth law. A fact sheet, summary and 2012 briefing explain the approach.

Switzerland

Switzerland has a 2011 youth law and a 2008 youth policy strategy. A 2012 briefing exists.

Syria

Syria does not yet have a national youth policy, but development is underway. A 2009 study has details.


T

Taiwan

Taiwan has a national youth policy, which was adopted and launched as a youth policy act in 2007.

Tajikistan

Tajikistan has a youth law, a youth policy and a youth programme. A 2010 book has details.

Tanzania

Tanzania overhauled its 1996 national youth policy in 2007. A detailed critique of the policy exists.

Thailand

Thailand has a youth development act and a youth development pro­gramme. A brief summary exists.

Timor-Leste

The national youth policy of Timor-Leste is from 2007. A youth survey and a youth analysis exist.

Togo

Tonga has published a youth report in late 2012 in preparation of a national youth employment plan.

Tonga

Following an analysis, the youth policy was adopted in 2007. A 2008 briefing and 2011 chapter exist.

Trinidad & Tobago

Trinidad & Tobago has a youth policy covering 2012-2017, which has replaced the previous 2004 version.

Tunisia

Tunisia has no overarching national youth policy. A 2009 youth policy study exists and explains.

Turkey

Turkey’s national youth policy is from 2013. A 2008 research, 2009 study and 2010 briefing exist.

Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan has a 2013 state law on youth policy, replacing the previous 1993 version.

Tuvalu

Tuvalu has a national youth policy from 2005, which is currently under review. A 2006 analysis exists.


U

Uganda

Uganda has a national youth policy from 2001. A 2011 youth mapping (Vol 1, Vol 2) is available.

Ukraine

The Ukraine has a 2013 youth policy strategy and a youth development law (1993). Reviews: 2010 & 2011.

United Arab Emirates

Youth policy in the United Arab Emirates is coordinated regionally by the seven different Emirates.

United Kingdom

The UK is developing a new youth policy vision. Recent briefings exist: 2010 and 2012.

United States

In 2013, Pathways for Youth was published, a draft federal youth policy framework.

Uruguay

The youth policy of Uruguay is from 2011. A 2012 briefing focuses on youth unemployment.

Uzbekistan

Uzbekistan has a national youth policy law from 1991. A 2011 article has details on the approach.


V

Vanuatu

Vanuatu launched a youth development policy and an action plan. A youth monograph exists.

Venezuela

Venezuela had a youth law, which was replaced with the law on the popular power of youth in 2009.

Vietnam

Vietnam has a youth law from 2005 and a youth development strategy for 2011-2020.


Y

Yemen

Yemen has a national youth strategy for 2006-2015. A 2008 youth assessment report exists.


Z

Zambia

The national youth policy of Zambia, from 2006, is under review. A previous one is from 1994.

Zimbabwe

Updated—and criticised—in 2012.
Previous version from 2000.
Updated policy not yet available.


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