198 Methods of Nonviolent Action
Far too often people struggling for democratic rights and justice are not aware of the full range of methods of nonviolent action. Wise strategy, attention to the dynamics of nonviolent struggle, and careful selection of methods can increase a group’s chances of success.
Gene Sharp researched and catalogued these 198 methods and provided a rich selection of historical examples in his seminal work, The Politics of Nonviolent Action (3 Vols.) Boston: Porter Sargent, 1973. This document lists Sharp’s 198 Methods.
The 198 Methods include:
Social Intervention, Economic Intervention, Political Intervention, Physical Intervention, Psychological Intervention, International Governmental Action, Domestic Governmental Action, Action by Government Personnel, Citizens’ Alternatives to Obedience, Citizens’ Noncooperation with Government, Rejection of Authority, Combination of Strikes and Economic Closures, Multi-Industry Strikes, Restricted Strikes, Ordinary Industrial Strikes,Strikes by Special Groups, Agricultural Strikes, Symbolic Strikes, Action by Governments, Action by Holders of Financial Resources, Action by Owners and Management, Action by Middlemen, Action by Workers and Producers, Actions by Consumers.