Definition of Youth
An analysis of youth participation (2011) states that most organisations and experts in Spain define youth as those aged 15 to 29 years. A country fact sheet (2009) reports that youth associations are legally defined as formal gatherings of 14-29 year olds.
- Opposite Sex
- Same Sex
- Without parental consent
- with parental consent
Situation of Young People
- 99.72% Male (15-24) %
- 99.77% Female (15-24) %
- Year: 2015
- Source: UNESCO
Net Enrolment RateSecondary School
- 94.89%Male %
- 96.42% Female %
- Year: 2012
- Source: UNESCO
Situation of Young People
Policy & Legislation
A National Report on the EU Youth Strategy 2010-2012 (2012) states that no national level youth act exists. Under Spain’s decentralised structure, responsibility for youth sits with the Autonomous Communities. Between 2008-2011, a White Paper on Youth Policy in Spain 2020 was drafted. This was expected to establish a comprehensive, nationwide strategy on youth. It is unclear whether this has been adopted. The Strategy for Youth Entrepreneurship and Employment 2013-2016 (2013) aims to improve young people’s employability, promote youth employment, equal opportunities and entrepreneurship. Article 48 of the Spanish Constitution (1978) states that “public authorities shall promote conditions for the free and effective participation of young people in political, social, economic and cultural development”.
(ministry, department or office) that is primarily responsible for youth?
Youth and Representation
Budget & Spending
- % of GDP
- % of gov. expenditure
Source: World Bank
Gaps indicate missing data from the original data source. (Accessed May 2014).
The Great Recession has had a significant social impact in Spain, where the effects on the labour market caused by the change in the economic cycle have been more profound than in many other European countries.
Almost three million jobs have been lost between 2008 and 2012, which represents a year-on-year decline of 15 per cent. As a result, the level of employment has fallen by 10 per cent, to a rate of 58 per cent, while unemployment has risen dramatically to 5.6 million and a rate of 24.6 per cent, the highest in the European Union (EU).
A question of particular relevance is the fact that the significant decline in employment has not affected all age groups in the same way, with young people being particularly hard hit. This has also been the case in the rest of Europe, although not to such a pronounced degree, thereby confirming the general principle of “the last person hired is the first to be laid off”. The result is a number of 922,000 young unemployed (below 25 years of age) in 2012 and a youth unemployment rate of 52 per cent, the second highest in the EU, after Greece.
...it is clear that, as the results of different studies confirm, the successive labour reforms introduced in Spain over the past three decades − which, with a few exceptions, have been clearly oriented towards “greater flexibility” – have not had a significant impact on the net creation of jobs, contributing instead to increasing the level of precarious work.
For two reasons, in the current crisis the most vulnerable group is that formed by young people with the lowest level of education or training: first, because it is this group which has been most seriously affected by unemployment, while also suffering from a lower level of social protection (which is associated with their higher level of job instability). Second, because they are clearly going to be in a disadvantageous position in terms of accessing new jobs when the economic recovery becomes more consolidated (especially since the strategic changes in productive models is associated with an increasing demand for people with high and intermediate levels of qualifications).From National Report: First cooperation cycle of the EU Youth Strategy 2010-2012 (2012):
Political power in Spain is organised as a central government with devolved power for 17 autonomous communities (Comunidades Autónomas). There are also 2 autonomous cities. These regional governments are responsible for the administration of many public competencies, such as justice, health, education, social services, culture, urban and rural development and also youth policies. The Spanish Institute for Youth is the National Government agency responsible for youth issues. It has a coordination and communication role within the system, Each Region establishes its own youth policy, carried out by its youth institute or similar institution, following the region (sic) political priorities. And in many cases, local powers also have their own youth departments, especially in important cities, that develop their own youth policies as well.
...the economic and financial crisis that is taking place in out country since the beginning of the implementation of the EU Youth Strategy has changed the priorities of public policies and forced to focus (sic) on more immediate goals. Initiatives in youth policies planned or already in action have been suspended by many youth institutions at different levels.From the Strategy for Youth Entrepreneurship and Employment (2013):
The high level of youth unemployment in Spain is a structural problem with serious consequences for the present and future situation of Spanish youth and limits the potential growth of the Spanish economy in the long run.
18.5% of young people neither studying nor work or receive training though only 3.5% want to be in this situation.